Nej, vi har inte nått ”peak beard” och jag ska tala om varför

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Oroa dig inte. Vi har inte nått skäggighetens kulmen, ”peak beard”, trots att slarvig journalistik har spridit sådana rapporter de senaste dagarna.

Det som forskare faktiskt har kommit fram till är följande: När en viss typ av skäggfrisyr är ovanlig uppfattas den som mer attraktiv än när den är vanlig.

Det är allt! Och det hade journalister också upptäckt om de faktiskt hade läst artikeln ”Negative frequency-dependent preferences and variation in male facial hair” som publicerats i tidskriften Biology Letters.

Att (1) människor attraheras till avvikande utseenden och (2) mode skiftar över tid räcker inte för att förutspå när skägget kommer att nå sin kulmen.

Skäggbloggen ger dig här 5 skäl till varför skägget inte är på väg att dö ännu. Först lite bakgrund. Om du struntar i det finstilta kan du hoppa direkt till 1: Är vi inne på ”peak hår på huvudet” kanske?

Så gick skägg-experimentet till

Forskarnas hypotes är att en viss frisyr blir mer attraktiv när den är ovanlig. Detta kallas negativt frekvensberoende. Forskarna prövade sin hypotes genom att ett antal försökspersoner fick se foton på män med fyra olika grader av skägg: renrakade, med lätt stubb, kraftig stubb och helskägg.

En grupp försökspersoner fick först se 24 bilder med övervägande skäggiga män, en andra grupp fick se lika många bilder på övervägande rakade män, och en tredje grupp fick se blandade bilder. Samtliga tre försöksgrupper fick sedan se tolv bilder med varierande skäggighet. De poängsatte männens attraktionskraft.

Resultatet: Rakade ansikten fick högre poäng av den grupp som mestadels hade fått se skägg än av den grupp som mestadels hade fått se rakade ansikten. Och vice versa: skägg fick högre poäng av den grupp som mest hade fått se rakade ansikten jämfört med den grupp som mestadels hade fått se skägg.

Observera: Samtliga försöksgrupper tyckte att renrakat var minst attraktivt. Det handlar bara om en svag gradskillnad mellan försöksgrupperna.

Forskarnas analys: nyheter behagar

De tre australiska forskarna menar att deras försök antyder att människor attraheras av nyhetens behag. De hänvisar bland annat till en studie som visat att män föredrar kvinnor med brunt hår när det är ovanligt. Detta antyder, enligt forskarna, att kulturellt påverkade uppfattningar av skäggets nyhetsvärde kan påverka variationen, över tid, i mäns attraktionskraft och status. Sen kan du ju få tolka artikelns slutkläm som du vill: ”Although these processes remain to be more fully explored, negative frequency-dependent cultural mechanisms may have the potential to maintain variation in novel or influential traits within and between populations.

Räcker allt detta för att säga att vi nu snart har nått skäggighetens kulmen, ”peak beard”? Nej! Här är våra 5 invändningar.

1: Är vi inne på ”peak hår på huvudet” kanske?

Peak beard?

Peak beard?

Men hallå – säger den vakne läsaren nu – en av forskarna som skrivit den här artikeln, Rob Brooks, säger ju själv till BBC att vi kan ha nått ”peak beard”.

Brooks får säga vad fan han vill för att få rubriker. Hans forskning stöder ändå inte sådana uttalanden.

Hans antagande bygger på att det finns en liten grupp ”early adopters” som vill sticka ut från mängden för att synas bättre, och att fler personer sedan följer efter det som pionjärerna hittar på. Och när ett visst utseende har blivit mainstream går föregångarna (hipsters / filmstjärnor etc) vidare till nästa nya grej.

Det är rimligt.

Men Brooks antar också att nästa sak som ”early adopters” kommer att göra är att raka sig, och att alla sedan kommer att följa efter. Det är bara en gissning.

Brooks glömmer nämligen att det finns olika skäggfrisyrer. Man kan skaffa sig en ny frisyr för att sticka ut – man behöver inte raka sig helt. Detta är precis vad som har hänt genom historien. De gamla assyrierna färgade sina skägg med henna och guld. På medeltiden var det i Europa populärt med långt skägg och tvekluvet skägg. På 1600-talet var det mustasch med pipskägg (vandyke) som gällde. Och på 1800-talet uppstod en stor variation av frisyrer.

Att prata om ”peak beard” är som att prata om ”peak hår på huvudet”.

Peak beard?

Peak beard?

Oavsett om det sker med skägg, hår eller kläder finns det många sätt att skaffa sig en ny och ovanlig stil. Vad som blir nästa nyhet inom modet kan Brooks förutse lika lite som någon annan. Det kan bli nya typer av skägg, det kan bli inget skägg, det kan bli löskrage med dubbla slipsar och buffaloskor. Ingen vet.

Det som är helt säkert är att skägg kommer att bli mindre populärt vid någon tidpunkt. Men ingen vet när. Själv tror jag, baserat på historiska variationer, att vi är precis i början av en lång period då skägg är vanligare än under de senaste hundra åren.

2: Vem mäter mängden skägg i samhället?

Skägg har varit inne och ute i många omgångar genom historien. 1700-talet och 1900-talet var till exempel två väldigt rakade århundraden; men annars har skägget dominerat för det mesta.

För att man ska kunna uttala sig om när skäggigheten når sin kulmen måste man mäta mängden skägg i samhället. Men forskarna har i den här studien inte undersökt hur vanligt det faktiskt är med skägg nu. Då är det svårt att uttala sig om ”peak beard”.

Skäggigheten skiljer sig dessutom mycket åt mellan olika grupper i samhället. Ja, bland journalister och bland de som kallas ”hipsters” är skägget vanligt idag, men det är extremt ovanligt bland Paradise Hotel-deltagare eller politiker.

Jag hade därför gärna sett en djupare diskussion om hur människor väljer de uttryckssätt som ger dem status i det sociala sammanhang de befinner sig just för tillfället.

3: skägg finns inte främst för att det är attraktivt

Peak beard?

Peak beard?

Det aktuella experimentet visar möjligen att vissa personer skulle kunna välja att klippa en ny frisyr för att avvika från mängden. Men det visar inte på skäggets vara eller icke vara ur ett evolutionsbiologiskt perspektiv. Att klippa skägget är ett kulturellt anskaffat särdrag, inte ett genetiskt.

Och det är inte främst skäggets attraktionskraft som gör att evolutionen har gett män skägg. Tidigare forskning av bl.a. Barnaby Dixson har tvärtom antytt att män har skägg trots att kvinnor inte finner det särskilt attraktivt.

En sammanvägning av evolutionsbiologiska teorier och psykologisk forskning antyder att skägget genom evolutionen främst har haft betydelse för intrasexuell selektion – alltså den urvalsmekanism som går ut på att hanarna kämpar mot varandra för att lägga beslag på honorna. Teorin är att skägg ger män status i förhållande till andra män, en sorts tuppfäktningsaccessoar. Det har varit skitsamma om kvinnor tycker det är attraktivt eller inte. (Du kan läsa mer om detta i Skäggboken.)

Denna hypotes bekräftas också i den aktuella australiska studien: ”Women gave higher ratings to light and heavy stubble than beards. Men rated beards higher than light, but not heavy stubble.

Med andra ord: det spelar ingen roll att kvinnor upplever skägg som mindre attraktivt när många har skägg. Det är andra faktorer som påverkar skäggets existens – och andra saker som påverkar modet.

4: Rob Brooks önsketänkande

Om vi ponerar att jag hade varit lagt åt osakliga påhopp hade jag också kunnat säga så här: ”Eh, har ni sett Rob Brooks? Han har ju själv inget skägg! Kan det vara så att han ägnar sig åt önsketänkande när han förutspår skäggets snara försvinnande?”

5: För att vi säger det!

Eric var med i P4 Stockholm på torsdagen och berättade varför ryktet om skäggets död är betydligt överdrivet. Lyssna på det inslaget!

Jag ska sammanfatta. Vad är det vi har lärt oss?

Från nyhetsrapporteringen har vi lärt oss:
* Det finns en hög frekvens av väldigt dålig vetenskapsjournalistik, där journalister gör re-writes av andra journalisters re-writes utan att läsa originalkällan.
* Jag tycker inte att det är så farligt att man lyfter fram en felaktig (men rolig) vinkel när det gäller ett såpass lättsamt ämne som skäggs attraktionskraft. Men:
* Detta visar på en grundläggande låg förmåga hos journalister att läsa vetenskapliga texter, vilket i förlängningen kan vara ett problem när journalister rapporterar om forskning som är viktigare för samhället.
* Den här rapporteringen visar på en tendens hos redaktionerna att ”det är bättre att publicera en nyhet som är fel men rolig än att publicera en nyhet som är korrekt men tråkig”.

Från den vetenskapliga studien som drog igång alltsammans har vi lärt oss:
* Det finns stöd för att en viss skäggfrisyr framstår som mer attraktiv om den är ovanlig.
* Vi har INTE lärt oss något om när skäggigheten når sin kulmen nästa gång.

Så, ni kan rätta era texter nu, DN, VF, DI, AB, Feber m.fl.

KÄLLA:
Janif ZJ, Brooks RC, Dixson BJ. 2014 Negative frequency-dependent preferences and variation in male facial hair. Biol. Lett. 10: 20130958. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2013.0958

KOMMENTAR: Det här inlägget har delvis omstrukturerats och fått några tillägg 20 april.

45 reaktion på “Nej, vi har inte nått ”peak beard” och jag ska tala om varför

  1. Stefan Jadefjord

    Mycket bra skrivet! Då har vi rett ut det. Jag tyckte ”nyheten” var fruktansvärt absurd när den kom. Jag förstår den vetenskapliga aspekten av det hela men i detta fallet är den inte överförbar på verkligheten då vi med skägg fortfarande är i minoritet.

  2. Pingback: Dags att hoppa av skäggtåget?

  3. Dromedaren

    Vänta nu skulle hipsters vara föregångare? De är arketypen av efterapande människor som aldrig är först med något, men ofta sista med att inse att de som är föregångare redan har övergett det som hipsters fortfarande talar sig varma för.

  4. Alexander

    Jag skulle snarare tänka mig att vi har nått ”peak stubble” då jag ser att många män har stubb. Detta märkte jag ökade när just forskningsrapporterna kom ut på att kvinnor föredrog skäggstubb.

    Det intressanta i undersökning är ju framförallt att man dras till det som sticker ut, och det stämmer väl, även när jag attraheras av kvinnor. De flesta kvinnor klär sig rätt så fint och alldagligt, men ser jag en tjej, t.ex. med gothstil så kan jag bli riktigt attraherad (är dock inte gothare) själv. Men just för att stilen sticker ut i mängden gör det attraktivt!

    Därför tror jag helgskägg är ett sätt att differientera sig och marknadsföra sig på, då det är betydligt ovanligare att se.

  5. Razrobban

    Fram med rakhyveln! Dags att sluta att se ut som en biologilärare! Bara i Sverige detta spektakel pågår! Res utanför gränserna och se att få bär hår i ansiktet. Jag tycker ni är lika trendiga som tribaltatueringar.

  6. Fredrik Svanström

    Med tanke på bristen på inlägg i den här bloggen numera kan man nästan tro att vi faktiskt redan nått ”peak beard” vilket vore tråkigt och lite jobbigt för alla som har skägg för att det är trendigt (eller var trendigt om vi nu nått ”peak beard”).

    Skriv mer grabbar! Det är en bra blogg annars!

  7. Eric Thorsson

    Hej Fredrik! Ledsen för den sparsamma uppdateringen. Efter drygt fyra års bloggande lider vi helt enkelt lite brist på inspiration för tillfället. Vi hoppas på att väckas till liv, tack för peppen!

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  9. Marcus

    Har totalt tröttnat på re-writes av artiklar. Journalister tar allt mer genvägar. Studier visar till och med att endast 0.9% av nätartiklar bygger på egen journalistik. Kasst!

    ”2010 skrev Jonathan Stray en tänkvärd artikel
    för Nieman Journalism Lab. Han undersökte 800 nätartiklar om samma
    nyhet – alla utom 121 var identiska, 13 innehöll åtminstone något eget
    citat och bara sju (0,9 procent) byggde huvudsakligen på eget
    journalistiskt arbete. De andra hade producerats av journalister som
    skrivit av varandra utan att behöva lämna redaktionen.”
    http://www.svd.se/kultur/understrecket/varldens-storsta-krig-ar-osynligt-i-medierna_7846030.svd

  10. Pingback: Skägg får tidningar att strunta i att granska källor | Skäggbloggen

  11. Erika

    Thanks for the quick reply. Are you sure that there are institutions who won’t reiqure your personal guarantee for new companies like these? Also, how much more (on average) have you seen a C or S corp receive than an LLC in initial funding?Cashman

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